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Crimea, Simeiz


Simeiz settlement (from Greek - "mark") is located 5 kilometers to the west of Alupka. It is widespread at the spurs of the Cat Mountain, which is one of the most picturesque mountains in the Main Chine. Here the fortification of the Tavrs was located, in the vicinity of the settlement the archeologists discovered the largest Tavrs' necropolis in the Crimea. The outskirts of Simeiz are also decorated with such cliffs as Diva, Swan Wing and Panea Mountain. On the latter cliff, Byzantine monastery was located.

Next to the Diva Cliff (by its shape it resembles a woman with flowing hair, who is coming out of the sea), formerly there was the Monk - the pointed cliff, which was like the hermit in the calotte. It fell under the blows of the waves, and only piling up of the stones remained in its memory.

In the 19th-20th centuries, the notable dignitaries and rich industrialists built their summer residences there. In the 20-ies of the 20th century, many estates were handed over to sanatoria and rest homes. The villas "Dream" and "Ksenia" were especially interesting. The latter was built in 1911, by the design of the architect N. Krasnov, at present, it is known as a "house with ghosts".

In Simeiz there was an observatory, where in 1959, for the first time, the depiction of the Moon underside was received. The telescope on the Koshka (Cat) Mountain was established at the end of the 19th century by I. Maltsev, the owner of the Simeiz, and presented to the Pulkov observatory. At present, the observatory moved to the settlement Nauchny (Scientific), but the antenna remained in memory of the research held there.

Next to Simeiz, there is the Blue Gulf with a wonderful aquapark, where the whole day would pass in entertainment.

In Melas, the palace of L. Petrovsky is located (19th century). At present, the "Melas" sanatorium belongs to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine and is closed for the tours.

Above the Opolsnevy there is the Biuk-lsar Mountain, on the peak of which a threatening fortification of the Feodorites rose in the period of the early medieval years. The Ifigenia Cliff in the Beregove settlement is named so due to the myth about a stay of the Greek priestess in Taurida. They maintain that here the Tavrs Cathedral of the Virgin goddess was located. Next to the Beregove settlement, there is the pass Shaitan-Merdven (Devil's Staircase). It was used for passing from the Crimea Mountain to the southern coast.

To the West of the Ai-Yuri (or Dragon) there is the resort settlement Foros. Over it, on the high Red Cliff, the Church of the Ascension of the Christ looks like it lives in the cloud-land. It was built in 1892, by the Academician-achitect N. Chagin to the order of the industrialist A. Kuznetsov. The Cathedral was erected in honor of saving Aleksander III on his way back from the Crimea: the train by which the Tsar's family was going, was wrecked near Kharkov.

In the middle of the 20th century, a restaurant was opened in the cathedral; they say that Nikita Khrushchev visited it. Then the construction was neglected, and the paintings were lost in the fire. Raisa Gorbacheva took up for the reconstruction of the cathedral in 1987.

Above the church, on the Baidar Pass in 1884, the Baidar Gates were erected (architect K. Ashliman). From them a wonderful view on the valley opens.

Near the eastern outskirts of Foros, the state summer residence the "Zaria" (Dawn) is located, where in the course of the putsch in August 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev, the first and the last President of the USSR, was under the house arrest. At present, this summer residence became the residence of the President of Ukraine.

The "Tesseli" ("Silence"), is the former general N. Rayevsky's estate. In 1932, it was granted to Maxim Gorky. At present, the trade representative office of the Republic of Tatarstan in the Crimea rents this summer residence.

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